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currently, the data suggest that women are overrepresented in the substance abuse treatment system compared to the number of women who abuse substances (brown, 2005 ; colarossi et al., 2003 ). the reasons for the increased substance abuse among female adolescents are not well understood. prior studies indicate that a number of biological (e.g., genetic) and psychosocial (e., not having adequate role models) variables may affect female adolescents' propensity to abuse substances ( quinn & rhoa, 2001 ). existing theories suggest that the lower rates of substance abuse among adolescent men may be due to the less positive social role models for substance use ( sarpal et al., 2009 ). the increased focus on the negative consequences of substance use and the increased pressure on adolescents to make better choices may also contribute to the gender disparity in substance abuse, and girls may be affected by the increased emphasis on self-control and managing negative emotions.
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the last 40 years have seen the blurring of the lines between domestic violence and intimate partner violence. the majority of victims of intimate partner violence (ipv) also experience physical abuse from another partner. the overlap has led to claims that intimate partner violence can be used to describe a phenomenon that is not solely about violence against women. according to a study examining ipv against men and young men, the authors argue that ipv is about having a partner who contributes to the impoverishment of a person's life ( finkelhor & zickuhr, 1993 ). however, it is also more than that. as a result of the tendency of women to define intimate partner violence in a narrow, feminist manner, men's victims are inaccurately reported as being beaten by partners. the concept of intimate partner violence makes it is difficult to determine the true prevalence of domestic violence among men because many men are never victims and do not see themselves as such. but, if we want to understand male victims, we need to have a more comprehensive definition of intimate partner violence, one that recognizes the severity of the physical and psychological abuses inflicted by women ( men's health work group, 2006 ).